1.0 Introduction.

1.1 Marketing as a concept.
1.2 Production concept, Product concept, Selling concept, Marketing concept, Societal concept.
1.3 Sellers market, Buyers market.
1.4 Industrial column plus integration and differentiation throughout the column.
1.5 Environmental variables (controllable/uncontrollable) on Macro-, Meso- and Micro level.
1.6 Various approaches to the concept of marketing: Consumer marketing, Retail marketing, Trade marketing, Industrial marketing (BtB/B2B), International marketing, Direct marketing, Non-profit marketing.
1.7 The Marketing-mix (4 P’s).

2.0 Outline of (Strategic) Marketing Planning.

2.1 Company’s present situation.

– Level of existence.
– Abell: Business definition (Business domain).
– Mission statement and goals.
– MBO (Management by Objectives), Gap-analysis, MBE (Management by Exception).

2.2 External and Internal analysis (Macro, Meso, Micro).
2.3 SWOT analysis and SWOT matrix. – Defining Strategic Issues. – Defining the Core Problem.
2.4 Collecting Options.
2.5 Screening Options (Discounted Cashflow, Pay-backtime, Average profitability, etc.).
2.6 Selecting Option(s).
2.7 Implementation: Strategic-, Tactical- and Operational Plan. – Evaluation and feed-back.
2.8 Financial analysis (Balance Sheet Analysis)

3.0 The Market.

3.1 Concrete market vs. Abstract market.
3.2 Levels: Budget, Generic, Product category, Brand.
3.3 Market = Segment = Demand.
3.4 Use of the term ‘Demand’:

– Initial demand, Replacement demand, Additional demand.
– Extension demand (Growth demand).
– Effective demand, Potential demand, Total demand (Total effective market).
– Budget demand, Generic demand, Product (category) demand, Brand demand.
– Primary demand, Secondary demand, Selective demand.
– Derived demand.
– Term ‘Disposal’.

3.5 Concepts Snapshot and Flow.
3.6 Diffusion and Adoption (Adaptation).
3.7 Penetration degree (PD) and Cumulative Penetration degree (CP). – Relative- and Absolute Penetration.
3.8 Parfitt and Collins’ approach for market share forecasting (Fast moving consumer goods). – Forecasting market- and sales volumes (Durables).
3.9 Market forms: Monopoly, Oligopoly, Polipoly (Monopolistic competition).
3.10 PMC (Product Market Combination, Ansoff), PMTC (Product Market Technology Combination, Abell).
3.11 Market segmentation: Criteria and variables. – Aggregation, Segmentation, Concentration (Focusing, Market niche).

4.0 Aspects of Consumer behaviour.

4.1 Multi-disciplinary approach: Sociological, Psychological, Socio-psychological, Economical, Anthropological (Cross-cultural).
4.2 Homo-economicus and Maximising behavior.
4.3 Black box model (Stimulus – Response model).
4.4 Phases in buying behavior. Cognitive dissonance (consonance).
4.5 Attitude.
4.6 Roles within the family: users, influencers, decision makers, buyers, gatekeepers.
4.7 Social classes: European model, Anglo-Saxon model.
4.8 Family lifecycle.
4.9 Maslow’s pyramid.
4.10 Conditioning.
4.11 Evoked set, consideration set and choice set.
4.12 Brain-ladder positioning.
4.13 Copeland’s product categories: convenience goods (f.m.c.g’s), shopping goods, specialty goods, unsought goods.
4.14 Buying behavior: habitual, dissonance reducing, complex (extensive problem solving), variety seeking, impulse.

5.0 Organization models and the function of marketing therein.

5.1 Organization charts and Line-, staff- and matrix-organizations.
5.2 Formal vs. Informal organization.
5.3 Front office vs. Back office.
5.4 Product management vs. Account management.
5.5 Span of control vs. Depth of control (horizontal/vertical).
5.6 Planning structures: Top down, bottom up, goals down/plans up.
5.7 Constituing vs. directional management.

6.0 Market investigation and Marketing investigation.

6.1 Difference between Market investigation and Marketing investigation. – Marketing audit.
6.2 Desk research and field research. – Gathering data: secondary and primary.
6.3 Observation, Experiment and Inquiry.
6.4 Sampling criteria: non-select, representative, validity, size. – Sampling methods: representative, stratified, quota, etc.
6.5 Central tendencies (central locations or centre locations): – Mode (modus,modal), Median (medial) and Average (simple- or common- vs. weighted average).
6.6 Levels of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio. – Subjects vs. objects. – Discretionary- vs. continuing (numeral) variables.
6.7 Frequency tables.
6.8 Spreading standards: Range, Average deviation, Variance, Standard deviation.
6.9 Standard deviation on nominal and ordinal level (discretionary). – Pooled variance test. – Chi-square test (only on nominal level).
6.10 Standard deviation on interval and ratio level (numeral).
6.11 Brand switching matrix.

7.0 P of Pricing.

7.1 Methods of pricing on the basis of: Costs, Demand and Competition.
7.2 Full costing (absorption costing).
7.3 Mark-up methods: Cost-plus pricing, Rate of return pricing, Return on investment (ROI), Return on sales ( ROS).
7.4 Over-capacity and under-capacity.
7.5 Method of Direct Costing.
7.6 Break-even analysis and calculations.
7.7 Flexible break-even analysis and calculations.
7.8 Backward pricing (demand pricing, reversed pricing).
7.9 Active- and passive pricing strategies.
7.10 Price differentiation vs. Price discrimination.
7.11 Price elasticity of Demand, Price elasticity of Supply, Cross elasticity.

8.0 P of Product.

8.1 Core product, tangible (formal) product and augmented product.
8.2 Physical product vs. Service product.
8.3 Properties of a service.
8.4 Properties of an assortment.
8.5 Brands.
8.6 Family- or umbrella brands.
8.7 Trading up and trading down.

– Upgrading and downgrading.
– Wheels of retailing.

8.8 Phases of product development.
8.9 Product Life Cycle (PLC).

9.0 P of Place (or Distribution).

9.1 Selection of distribution channels.
9.2 Selection of location.
9.3 Business logistics (materials management and physical distribution).
9.4 Length of distribution channels and multi channel distribution.
9.5 Push- and pull strategy.
9.6 Intensity of distribution.
9.7 Distribution ratio’s.

10.0 P of Promotion (or Marketing Communication).

10.1 Communication mix.
10.2 Advertising model (AIDA).
10.3 Categories of advertising.
10.4 Some forms of promotion.
10.5 Selection criteria for advertising media.
10.6 Reach and Coverage of advertising media..
10.7 Methods for advertising budgeting.
10.8 Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results.

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